Since the beginning of time, humanity has strived to understand the fundamental workings of the universe. How does matter come to emerge from the structure of space? How do the forces interact with each other? And most importantly, how did biology and eventually, human beings come into existence?

Nassim Haramein’s work attempts to solve some of the deepest and biggest questions about our universe. For over 35 years, Haramein has been researching and discovering connections in physics, mathematics, geometry, cosmology, quantum mechanics, biology, and chemistry as well as anthropology and archeology.

These studies led Haramein to groundbreaking theories, published papers, and patented inventions in unified physics, which are now gaining worldwide recognition and acceptance; presenting the unification of all forces, all constants in physics, at all scales in the universe. By redefining humanity’s relationship with the structure of spacetime to produce energy and gravity control, there exists the potential to produce a sustainable world, and a capacity for humanity to truly colonize our solar system and beyond.

## Scale-Invariant Unification of Forces, Fields & Particles in a Quantum Vacuum Plasma

By Nassim Haramein and Olivier Alirol

**ABSTRACT**

From Bekenstein^{(1)}-Hawking^{(2)}, Susskind^{(3),} and ‘t Hooft^{(4)} development of the holographic principle, we consider a statistical entropy and thermodynamics approach of a surface-to-volume generalized holographic ratio defined in previous work (5)(6)(7). Applying this analysis, we chart a first-order approximation of a scaling coefficient utilizing a face-centered cubic crystalline structure representation of spacetime. The resulting scaling from the Planck scale to the universal scale finds a surprisingly periodic fit to organize matter in the universe. As a result, we can compute exact values defining the fundamental scaling factors of physical interactions. By applying them to radii and masses at the hadronic, electronic, and Hubble Constant *H _{o}* scale we find results consistent with current measurements.

Utilizing these scaling factors, we compute a value for the gravitational constant *G* with an accuracy of ten significant figures 10^{-10}, representing a first analytical solution for *G*, which is typically only known to five significant figures of accuracy from the experiment. The accuracy of the value can be confirmed by computing the Rydberg constant, known from measurements to 10^{-12} accuracy, utilizing our scaling factor and our derived value of *G* . As a result, we are now able to derive all Planck units to 10^{-10} significant figures.

The relationship between the constants through our computed scaling factors derived from the fundamental holographic ratio Φ is further confirmed by the precise computation of the mass of the electron, the radius of the electron, the Bohr magnetron, and the mass of the proton, all known to 10-10 by measurements. As a result, we can demonstrate a clear relationship between the classical scale of the gravitational constant and the quantum energy spectra of the atomic scale from the first principle of theoretical tenets alone.

As a result of our scaling law, we now have a geometric interpretation of the fine structure constant and the proton to the electron mass ratio and find the Koide formula to be in a direct relationship to the scaling factor. Therefore, utilizing this formula we compute an exact solution for α and μ. We then validate this value to 10^{-13} accuracy by predicting the electron g-factor *g _{e}* . As a result, we are as well able to predict the vacuum permittivity constant ε

_{0}as an exact value which is known to 10

^{-10}accuracy.

Furthermore, considering the 2019 redefinition of the SI base units and the natural Planck units we are now able to unify all the measurements into one analytical framework. Thus, by having only one measurement, such as the Rydberg constant, one can compute all the other values to 10^{-12} accuracy.

This opens the way to the unification of forces, which we scale and find a direct correlation between the forces coupling constants and our holographic ratio Φ at all scales. Resulting in the unification of particles, fundamental constants, and forces in a unified theoretical framework based on a fractalization of spacetime defined by an entropic principle related to the surface-to-volume holographic ratio Φ.

References

^{1.} J. D. Bekenstein, Phys. Rev. D **23**, 287 (1981).

^{2.} S. W. Hawking, Nature **248**, 30 (1974). S. W. Hawking, Commun. Math. Phys. **43**, 199 (1975).

^{3.} L. Susskind, J. Math. Phys. **36**, 6377 (1995)

^{4.} G. ’t Hooft, “Dimensional reduction in quantum gravity,” arXiv:gr-qc/ 9310026 (1993). G. ’t Hooft, Basics and Highlights in Fundamental Physics (Proceedings of the International School of Subnuclear Physics, Erice, Sicily, Italy, 2000).

^{5.} *Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass*, Haramein, N. (2012). Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass, *Physical Review & Research International*, ISSN: 2231-1815, Page 270-292

^{6.} *The Electron and the Holographic Mass Solution*, Val baker, A.K.F, Haramein, N. and Alirol, O. (2019). The Electron and the Holographic Mass Solution, Physics Essays, Vol 32, Pages 255-262.

^{7.} *Resolving the Vacuum Catastrophe: A Generalized Holographic Approach*, Haramein, N & Val Baker, A. K. F. (2019). Resolving the Vacuum Catastrophe: A Generalized Holographic Approach, *Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology*, Vol.05 No.02(2019), Article ID:91083, 13 pages

#### Resolving the Vacuum Catastrophe: A Generalized Holographic Approach

**Haramein, N & Val Baker, A. K. F. (2019). Resolving the Vacuum Catastrophe: A Generalized Holographic Approach, Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol.05 No.02(2019), Article ID:91083, 13 pages**

We address the ~122 orders of magnitude discrepancy between the vacuum energy density at the cosmological scale and the vacuum density predicted by quantum field theory. This disagreement is known as the cosmological constant problem or the “vacuum catastrophe”. Utilizing a generalized holographic model, we consider the total mass-energy density in the geometry of a spherical shell universe (as a first order approximation) and find an exact solution for the currently observed critical density of the universe. We discuss the validity of such an approach and consider its implications to cosmogenesis and universal evolution.

#### The Unified Spacememory Network: from Cosmogenesis to Consciousness

**Haramein, N., Brown W., & Val Baker, A. K. F. (2016). The Unified Spacememory Network: from cosmogenesis to consciousness, Journal of Neuroquantology.**

The Unified Spacememory Network is a novel approach to describing the information structure of space by physicist Nassim Haramein, biophysicist William Brown, and astrophysicist Amira Val Baker: the encoding of information as memory and the quasi-instantaneous access of information, both of which occur via the multiply-connected architecture of space at the micro-scale. The vast and ever-evolving connectivity network of space is what engenders time via entanglement of multiple spacetime frames, even if they are separated by large spatial and temporal extents at the macro-scale, such that a spacetime coordinate may be a memory imprint in the geometry of another and therefore correlate with a “past” or “future” state, hence generating time via memory or space-memory. This also engenders a holoinfogramic property of space, as the state of any one spacetime coordinate is accessible to any other coordinate via the multiply-connected geometry or unified spacememory network. Multiply-connected spacetime geometry is the result of high-energy quantum vacuum oscillations occurring at the Planck spatiotemporal scale. These energetic oscillations and the structural geometry that results is the basis of matter: material manifest from the aether. As structural-geometric entities (geons) of energetic oscillations of space, matter is also integrally connected via the quantum entanglement structure of multiply-connected spacememory, forming an entanglement nexus. The universe is an immensely complicated network of entangled subsystems. Since life is a highly complex organization of matter and biochemical networks, the entanglement nexus is present and operational in the organism as well, functioning as a veritable morphogenic field. We describe how the evolution of living systems is an extension of the morphogenesis and increasing complexity of subsystems of the universe in general, and it is a unified and cohesive process. Importantly, the natural evolution process of the universe is not random but instead is influenced by trans-temporal entanglement (that is communication via entanglement networks / entangled spacetime coordinates across the temporal domain), where “future” maximally entangled or maximally coherent states operate as an attractor locus, driving systems to greater synergetic organization and higher degrees of complex entanglement networks.

#### The Electron and the Holographic Mass Solution

**Val baker, A.K.F, Haramein, N. and Alirol, O. (2019). The Electron and the Holographic Mass Solution, Physics Essays, Vol 32, Pages 255-262.**

Computation of the electron mass is found utilizing a generalized holographic mass solution in terms of quantum electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations. The solution gives a clear insight into the structure of the hydrogen Bohr atom, in terms of the electron cloud and its relationship to the proton and the Planck scale vacuum fluctuations. Our electron mass derivation is in agreement with the measured CODATA 2014 value. As a result, an elucidation of the source of the fine structure constant, the Rydberg constant, and the proton-to-electron mass ratio is determined to be in terms of vacuum energy interacting at the Planck scale.

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#### Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass

**Haramein, N. (2012). Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass, Physical Review & Research International, ISSN: 2231-1815, Page 270-292 **

We find an exact quantized expression of the Schwarzschild solution to Einstein’s field equations utilizing spherical Planck units in a generalized holographic approach. We consider vacuum fluctuations within volumes as well as on horizon surfaces, generating a discrete spacetime quantization and a novel quantized approach to gravitation. When applied at the quantum scale, utilizing the charge radius of the proton, we find values for the rest mass of the proton within 0.069×10^{-24}gm of the CODATA value and when the 2010 muonic proton charge radius measurement is utilized we find a deviation of 0.001×10^{-24}gm from the proton rest mass. We identify a fundamental mass ratio between the vacuum oscillations on the surface horizon and the oscillations within the volume of a proton and find a solution for the gravitational coupling constant to the strong interaction. We derive the energy, angular frequency, and period for such a system and determine its gravitational potential considering mass dilation. We find the force range to be closely correlated with the Yukawa potential typically utilized to illustrate the exponential drop-off of the confining force. Zero free parameters or hidden variables are utilized.

Keywords: Quantum gravity; holographic principle; Schwarzschild solution; proton charge radius; strong interaction; Yukawa potential.

#### Addendum to “Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass” in View of the 2013 Muonic Proton Charge Radius Measurement

**Haramein, N. (2013). Addendum to “Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass” in view of the 2013 Muonic Proton Charge Radius Measurement, Hawaii Institute for Unified Physics**

We consider the latest results of the measurement of the charge radius of the proton utilizing laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen published in Science on January 25, 2013, by an international team lead by Aldo Antognini and carried out at the Paul Scherrer Institute Proton Accelerator. Given the new charge radius measurement, we compute the proton mass utilizing our generalized holographic approach and find that our result is now within 0.00072 ×10^{-24}gm of the 2010-CODATA value of the proton rest mass. Our predicted charge radius is now within 0.00036 ×10^{-13} cm and remains within one standard deviation of the new measurement.

#### The Schwarzschild Proton

**Haramein, N. (2010). The Schwarzschild proton, AIP Conference Proceedings, CP 1303, ISBN 978-0-7354-0858-6, pp. 95-100.**

This manuscript received a Best Paper Award in the field of “Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Relativity, Field Theory, and Gravitation” at CASYS’09 (Computing Anticipatory Systems) in Belgium.

Abstract: We review our model of a proton that obeys the Schwarzschild condition. We find that only a very small percentage (~10-39%) of the vacuum fluctuations available within a proton volume need to be cohered and converted to mass-energy in order for the proton to meet the Schwarzschild condition. This proportion is equivalent to that between gravitation and the strong force where gravitation is thought to be ~10-38 to 10-40 weaker than the strong force. The gravitational attraction between two contiguous Schwarzschild protons can accommodate both nucleon and quark confinement. We calculate that two contiguous Schwarzschild protons would rotate at c and have a period of 10^{-23}s and a frequency of 10^{22} Hz which is characteristic of the strong force interaction time and a close approximation of the gamma emission typically associated with nuclear decay. We include a scaling law and find that the Schwarzschild proton data point lies near the least squares trend line for organized matter. Using a semi-classical model, we find that a proton charge orbiting at a proton radius at c generates a good approximation to the measured anomalous magnetic moment.

#### Scale Unification – A Universal Scaling Law for Organized Matter

**Haramein, N., Rauscher, E.A., and Hyson, M. (2008). Scale unification: a universal scaling law. Proceedings of the Unified Theories Conference. ISBN 9780967868776**

Abstract: From observational data and our theoretical analysis, we demonstrate that a scaling law can be written for all organized matter utilizing the Schwarzschild condition, describing cosmological to sub-atomic structures. Of interest are solutions involving torque and Coriolis effects in the field equations. Significant observations have led to theoretical and experimental advancement describing systems undergoing gravitational collapse, including vacuum interactions. The universality of this scaling law suggests an underlying polarizable structured vacuum of mini white holes/black holes. We briefly discuss the manner in which this structured vacuum can be described in terms of resolution of scale analogous to a fractal-like scaling as a means of renormalization at the Planck distance. Finally, we describe a new horizon we term the “spin horizon” which is defined as a result of a spacetime torque producing boundary conditions in a magnetohydrodynamic structure.

#### Spinors, Twistors, Quaternions, and the “Spacetime” Torus Topology

**Rauscher, E.A., and Haramein, N., (2007). Spinors, twistors, quaternions, and the “spacetime” torus topology, International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems, 1373-5411.**

Abstract: The dual torus topology occupies a central role in the spinor, twistor and quaternionic formulation. This topology appears to be ubiquitous in astrophysical and cosmological phenomena and is predicted by the U4 bubble of the affine connection in the HarameinRauscher solution to Einstein’s field equations. The geometric structure of the complexified Minkowski space is associated with the twistor algebra, spinor calculus, and the SUn groups of the quaternionic formalism. Hence quantum theory and relativity are related mathematically through the dual torus topology. Utilizing the spinor approach, electromagnetic and gravitational metrics are mappable to the twistor algebra, which corresponds to the complexified Minkowski space. Quaternion transformations relate to spin and rotation corresponding to the twistor analysis.

#### Collective Coherent Oscillation Plasma Modes in Surrounding Media of Black Holes and Vacuum Structure – Quantum Processes with Considerations of Spacetime Torque and Coriolis Forces

**Haramein, N., Rauscher, E. A. (2005). Collective coherent oscillation plasma modes in surrounding media of black holes and vacuum structure- quantum processes with considerations of spacetime torque and coriolis forces. Orinda: Beyond The Standard Model: Searching for Unity in Physics, 279-331.**

Abstract: The main forces driving black holes, neutron stars, pulsars, quasars, and supernovae dynamics have certain commonality to the mechanisms of less tumultuous systems such as galaxies, stellar and planetary dynamics. They involve gravity, electromagnetic, and single and collective particle processes. We examine the collective coherent structures of plasma and their interactions with the vacuum. In this paper, we present a balance equation and, in particular, the balance between extremely collapsing gravitational systems and their surrounding energetic plasma media. Of particular interest are the dynamics of the plasma media, the structure of the vacuum, and the coupling of electromagnetic and gravitational forces with the inclusion of torque and Coriolis phenomena as described by the Haramein-Rauscher solution to Einstein’s field equations. The exotic nature of complex black holes involves not only the black hole itself but the surrounding plasma media. The main forces involved are intense gravitational collapsing forces, powerful electromagnetic fields, charge, and spin angular momentum. We find soliton or magneto-acoustic plasma solutions to the relativistic Vlasov equations solved in the vicinity of black hole ergospheres. Collective phonon or plasmon states of plasma fields are given. We utilize the Hamiltonian formalism to describe the collective states of matter and the dynamic processes within plasma allowing us to deduce a possible polarized vacuum structure and a unified physics.

#### The Origin of Spin: A Consideration of Torque and Coriolis Forces in Einstein’s Field Equations and Grand Unification Theory

**Haramein, N., and Rauscher, E. A. (2005). The origin of spin: A consideration of torque and coriolis forces in Einstein’s field equations and grand unification theory. Beyond The Standard Model: Searching for Unity in Physics, 1, 153-168.**

Abstract. We address the nature of torque and the Coriolis forces as dynamic properties of the spacetime metric and the stress-energy tensor. The inclusion of torque and Coriolis effects in Einstein’s field equations may lead to significant advancements in describing novae and supernovae structures, galactic formations, their center supermassive black holes, polar jets, accretion disks, spiral arms, galactic halo formations, and advancements in unification theory as demonstrated in section five. We formulate these additional torque and Coriolis forces terms to amend Einstein’s field equations and solve for a modified Kerr-Newman metric. Lorentz invariance conditions are reconciled by utilizing a modified metrical space, which is not the usual Minkowski space, but the U 4 space. This space is a consequence of the Coriolis force acting as a secondary effect generated from the torque terms. The equivalence principle is preserved using an unsymmetric affine connection. Further, the U 1 Weyl gauge is associated with the electromagnetic field, where the U4 space is four copies of U1. Thus, the form of metric generates the dual torus as two copies of U1 x U1, which we demonstrate through the S3 spherical space, is related to the SU2 group and other Lie groups. Hence, the S4 octahedral group and the cuboctahedron group of the GUT (Grand Unification Theory) may be related to our U 4 space in which we formulate solutions to Einstein’s field equations with the inclusion of torque and Coriolis forces.